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Report Title: Preliminary Analysis of Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation in Occupational Settings: Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 535
Date: 4/17/2009
Author: OECD
Report Type: General Report
URL: [42594202.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), as part of its efforts to ensure the safe development of nanotechnology, established a project on Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation as a formal Steering Group of the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials at its third meeting in November 2007. The operational plan outlined three phases of work: Exposure in occupational settings, exposure to humans resulting from contact with consumer products and environmental releases of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure to environmental species resulting from environmental releases of manufactured nanomaterials. The objectives of phase 1, which this document covers, were to identify and compile guidance information for exposure measurement and mitigation for manufactured nanomaterials in occupational settings and to analyze existing guidance information for its accuracy in addressing manufactured nanomaterials, identify issues, and prepare recommendations. This report provides a preliminary analysis of exposure measurement and summaries of background documents. Currently, there is no agreement on metrics of exposure to nanomaterials, and several organizations recommend a multifaceted approach with several sampling techniques for characterizing workplace exposure. Preliminary recommendations include providing guidance on appropriate metrics of exposure, providing recommendations on measurement techniques and sampling methods, identifying reference nanomaterials for quality control of exposure measurements, comparing workplace survey and sampling protocols, and identifying biomarkers of nanomaterial exposure.
Archived Copy: 42594202_535_3232.pdf



Report Title: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, No. 25, Guidance Manual for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials: OECD’s Sponsorship Programme; First Revision
Report ID: 520
Date: 6/2/2010
Report Type: Guidance Document
URL: [Default.htm]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: This document is the twenty-fifth in OECD's Health and Safety Publications series on manufactured nanomaterials. After its Workshop in December 2005, the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials created the Health and Safety Publications series. This document is intended to assist sponsors in the development of Dossier Development Plans (DDPs), which describe a testing program for nanomaterials. The Sponsorship Programme aims to determine essential safety information for manufactured nanomaterials. The OECD has created a list of fourteen representative nanomaterials and a list of areas for which information is needed, including physical-chemical properties, environmental fate, mammalian toxicology, and material safety. This Guidance Manual lists testing protocols and methodologies, and also describes the Sponsorship Programme in detail. The Programme is being organized in two phases; in the first, participants have been invited to sponsor the testing of a manufactured nanomaterial and prepare a DDP. In the second phase, participants determine, based upon a risk assessment of a nanomaterial, what additional testing is required and subsequently conduct testing in further depth. A two-year review of the first phase is expected to be completed in early 2011.
Archived Copy: JT03284642_520_9319.pdf



Report Title: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, No. 22, OECD Programme on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials 2009-2012: Operational Plans of the Projects
Report ID: 513
Date: 4/26/2010
Report Type: General Report
URL: [displaydocumentpdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), as part of its efforts to ensure the safe development of nanotechnology, publishes the "Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials" to provide information on its latest activities related to human health and environmental safety. This document is the 22th in a series of 25 publications (as of July 2010), and discusses the efforts of OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. This report compiles the operational reports for 2009-2012 for the Working Party's eight projects: An OECD database on manufactured nanomaterials, safety testing of a representative set of manufactured nanomaterials, manufactured nanomaterials and test guidelines, cooperation on voluntary schemes and regulatory programmes, cooperation on risk assessment, the role of alternative test methods in nanotoxicology, cooperation on exposure measurement and exposure mitigation, and the environmentally sustainable use of manufactured nanomaterials. For each of these projects, this document lists the main objectives, work already accomplished, expected outputs for 2009-2012, and the outcome from past activities. The first phases of many of these projects are already underway and are returning valuable data, particularly in the area of safety.
Archived Copy: oecd_513_6932.pdf



Report Title: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, No. 23, Report of the Questionnaire on Regulatory Regimes for Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 512
Date: 11/1/2009
Report Type: General Report
URL: [displaydocumentpdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: One of the projects of the OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials is the project on cooperation on voluntary schemes and regulatory programmes. The project has two objectives: to identify applicable regulatory regimes and how they address information requirements, hazard identification, exposure mitigation, risk assessment, and risk management measures; and to provide an indication of regulatory activity and trends over time through the gathering of information on nanomaterial notifications provided for in various regulatory schemes. This report contains the responses from legislations to a questionnaire which was sent out on July 28, 2008. Twenty-four responses were received; none of these reported having legislation specific to nanomaterials, but most indicated that current legislation had authority to regulate nanomaterials. Fourteen legislations reported having pre-market notification and assessment of substances, and eight of those did not have any trigger quantities for registration or notification. This document contains the responses from all twenty-four legislations.
Archived Copy: oecd2_512_9223.pdf



Report Title: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, No. 20, Current Development/Activities on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials – Tour de Table at the 6th Meeting of the Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 509
Date: 2/24/2010
Report Type: Meeting Minutes
URL: [44947758.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: This document contains information shared at the OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials 6th Meeting in October 2009, and is intended to provide stakeholders with a snapshot of information on activities relating to manufactured nanomaterials. The OECD's database of research projects is currently in production and has 732 projects as of November 1, 2009. The Working Party is currently evaluating remaining gaps in the database. In the area of safety testing, 14 countries have committed to funding and participating the OECD's nanomaterials testing programme. Other projects such as the review of test guidelines and examination of voluntary reporting schemes are underway and are expected to have publicly available results shortly. The OECD has also held a workshop on risk assessment (in September 2009), from which a document will be produced listing critical issues in the risk assessment of manufactured nanomaterials. The Working Party is also cooperating with other organizations such as the ISO and joined in the 2nd International Conference on Chemicals Management. This document additionally contains the responses from delegations in attendance at the 6th Meeting.
Archived Copy: 44947758_509_2724.pdf



Report Title: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, No. 19, Analysis of Information Gathering Initiatives on Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 506
Date: 11/24/2009
Report Type: General Report
URL: [displaydocumentpdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), as part of its efforts to ensure the safe development of nanotechnology, publishes the "Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials" to provide information on its latest activities related to human health and environmental safety. This document is the 19th in a series of 25 publications (as of July 2010), and discusses the efforts of OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. The Working Party was created in 2006 to help OECD member countries effectively address the safety challenges posed by nanomaterials. An analysis of current information gathering initiatives shows that while many countries have similar schemes, there are differences in confidentiality and scope, among others. Voluntary information gathering schemes should also be supplemented with mandatory schemes. Section II of the document summarizes the different schemes in use in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the UK, and the US.
Archived Copy: oecd_506_3822.pdf



Report Title: OECD Database on Research into the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 504
Date: 4/1/2009
Report Type: Webpage
URL: [Default.htm]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The OECD launched its Database on Research into the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials on April 1, 2009. The database builds on the previous Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars "Nanotechnology Health and Environmental Implications: An Inventory of Current Research." It is intended to be a global resource which collects research projects addressing environmental, health, and safety issues of manufactured nanomaterials. With the database, OECD aims to identify research gaps and assist researchers in future collaborative efforts. The database is freely available to the public and searchable online. Contributors must be approved by the OECD Secretariat prior to uploading.
Archived Copy: database_504_9267.pdf



Report Title: Emission Assessment for Identification of Sources and Release of Airborne Manufactured Nanomaterials in the Workplace: Compilation of Existing Guidance
Report ID: 387
Date: 6/18/2009
Author: Environment Directorate Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology
Report Type: Background Document
Publication: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials No. 11
URL: [JT03266895.PDF]
Country: Other
Organization: http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2009doc.nsf/LinkTo/NT00002FD2/$FILE/JT03266895.PDF
Summary: The OECD Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology Joint Meeting decided to hold a Workshop on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials in December 2005, in Washington, D.C. Based on the conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop [ENV/JM/MONO(2006)19] they recognized that it was essential to ensure the efficient assessment of manufactured nanomaterials so as to avoid adverse effects from the use of these materials in the short, medium and longer term. With this in mind, the OECD Council established the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) as a subsidiary body of the OECD Chemicals Committee. This program concentrates on international cooperation with respect to human health and environmental safety implications of manufactured nanomaterials (limited mainly to the chemicals sector), and aims to ensure that the approach to hazard, exposure and risk assessment is of a high, science-based, and internationally harmonized standard. This document is intended to provide information on activities of the WPMN related to the safety of manufactured nanomaterials. The Working Party endorsed this report at its 5th Meeting on March 2009. This document is published on the responsibility of the Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology of the OECD.
Archived Copy: JT03266895_387_1974.pdf



Report Title: Identification, Compilation and Analysis of Guidance Information for Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation: Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 386
Date: 6/22/2009
Author: OECD Environment, Health and Safety Publications Environment Directorate Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology
Report Type: Advisory Report
Publication: Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials Number 10
URL: [JT03267097.PDF]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The OECD Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology Joint Meeting decided to hold a Workshop on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials in December 2005, in Washington, D.C. Based on the conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop [ENV/JM/MONO(2006)19] they recognized that it was essential to ensure the efficient assessment of manufactured nanomaterials so as to avoid adverse effects from the use of these materials in the short, medium and longer term. With this in mind, the OECD Council established the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) as a subsidiary body of the OECD Chemicals Committee. This program concentrates on international cooperation with respect to human health and environmental safety implications of manufactured nanomaterials (limited mainly to the chemicals sector), and aims to ensure that the approach to hazard, exposure and risk assessment is of a high, science-based, and internationally harmonized standard. This document is intended to provide information on the outcomes and developments of the WPMN related to the safety of manufactured nanomaterials. It compiles guidance information for exposure measurement and exposure mitigation for manufactured nanomaterials in occupational settings; and addresses their adequacy for manufactured nanomaterials. The Working Party endorsed this report at its 5th Meeting on March 2009.
Archived Copy: JT03267097_386_4208.pdf



Report Title: Germany Begins Risk Survey on Nanotechnology
Report ID: 317
Date: 6/23/2006
Report Type: News Article
Publication: foodproduction.daily.com
URL: [Germany-begins-risk-survey-on-nanotechnology]
Country: Other
Summary: The German Federal Institute of Risk Assessment (BfR) has commissioned the University of Stuttgart to conduct the survey on the risks of nanotechnological applications in food, cosmetics and other everyday items, according to a report by the Nanoforum. Though nanotechnology has made minor inroads in the food and drink industry, surveys like the one in Germany may either heighten consumer fears and lead to new regulations for the food sector relating to the use of nanotechnology. The survey will be performed by the Centre of Interdisciplinary Risk-science and Sustainable Development of Technology which will involve about 100 experts from science, industry, public authorities and non-governmental organizations. A questionnaire will focus on questions relating to current and future applications and potential risks. This information will be debated further in two workshops before being consolidated into a "risk-barometer" to be used to better inform public authorities.



Report Title: UN Says More Research Needed on Nanotech Safety
Report ID: 281
Date: 2/7/2007
Report Type: News Article
Publication: EurActiv.com
URL: [article-161484]
Country: Other
Summary: Research on nanotechnologies' potential benefits is not enough, argues a United Nations report, which calls for more investment into investigating the effects of nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The report points to an imbalance common with new and evolving technologies: that between investments spent on research on the potential benefits of nanotech (€7.7 billion) and on research on effects of nanoparticles on human health and the environment (€30 million) in the United States and the EU. The UN also doubts the adequacy of current regulatory frameworks to deal with the special characteristics of nanotechnology. The political debate on regulating nanotechnologies is just beginning, whereas nanotech products are already being mass-produced.



Report Title: Nanotechnology and Consumer Confidence
Report ID: 276
Date: 3/15/2007
Report Type: News Article
Publication: EurActiv.com
URL: [article-161268]
Country: Other
Summary: Nanotechnology is considered as being the next strategic technology, but consumer confidence in the safety of nanotech products is a precondition for their future commercialization and market uptake. This page contains a redaction of major milestones, policy summaries, issues, positions, and links related to regulation of and the political debates involved in nanotechnologies.



Report Title: Experts Urge International Effort on Nanotech Safety
Report ID: 275
Date: 3/27/2007
Report Type: News Article
Publication: EurActiv.com
URL: [article-162798]
Country: Other
Summary: Lack of toxicity data on nanomaterials is a challenge to the safe commercialisation of nanotech products, suggests a report on the assessment of their health and environmental impact. Published by the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, the report states that the main barriers for conducting life-cycle assessments in the nanotechnology field are the lack of data and understanding in certain areas. Confidentiality is also referred to as a "major problem", as existing LCA data is often proprietary data of companies and "even the exact composition of nanomaterials is strictly confidential". According to the report, the challenge is to commit industry to share enough of its LCA data and, at the same time, to guarantee the confidentiality needs of companies.



Report Title: South-west Scandinavia Striving to Boost Nanotechnology Sector
Report ID: 263
Date: 10/25/2007
Author: University of Copenhagen
Report Type: Press Release
Publication: CORDIS News
URL: [fetch]
Country: Other
Summary: The universities in South-west Scandinavia have joined forces in a new collaboration intended to promote the development of nanotechnology research, education and commercialisation. The network brings together Danish partners - the University of Copenhagen and the Technical University of Denmark - and Swedish partners - Lund University, Chalmers University of Technology and the Imgeo Institute in Gothenburg. This new collaboration is based on Nano Øresund, which is a nanotechnology association that was created by universities and stakeholders from the industry, and partly funded by the EU's Regional Development Fund.
Archived Copy: South-west Scandnavia striving to boost nanotechnology sector_263_8858.doc



Report Title: Small Science … Big Future: an Emerging Research Field of Huge Potential, Nanotechnology is by Nature Multi-disciplinary. But How Well is European Science Equipped to Straddle Traditional Boundaries?
Report ID: 240
Date: 7/1/1998
Author: K. Glinos and O. Pfaffenzeller
Report Type: News Article
Publication: Innovation and Technology Transfer
URL: [dossier.htm]
Country: Other
Summary: In the past decade, new physical and theoretical tools have enabled physicists, chemists, and biologists to arrive, from different directions, at the same point of nanotechnology. The opportunities for sharing skills and methods, and for joint research, seem endless. But differences of professional language and rigidities within academic and funding institutions make cross-disciplinary collaboration difficult. Essentially, the question boils down to how the direction of European research can be determined in a field where opportunities may not be recognized by the established disciplines, and whose commercial potential is uncertain and long-term. Under the current Fourth Research Framework Program, the European Commission has supported nanotechnology through Esprit, Biotech and Brite-Euram and, in the field of electronics, through Esprit's Phantoms co-ordination action. Though the forthcoming Fifth Framework Program will continue funding from budgets for generic research within the thematic program, there will be new mechanisms for horizontal co-ordination. COST meanwhile, which recently launched four actions covering nanotechnology, has set up a horizontal ad hoc group on nanosciences to find ways of overcoming discipline-based barriers to cooperation and synergy. At national level, an IPTS study found that nine EU Member States currently fund dedicated research program.



Report Title: Nanotechnology and Developing Countries Part 1: What Possibilities?
Report ID: 237
Date: 9/30/2005
Author: Donald C. Maclurcan
Report Type: General Report
Publication: AZojono: Journal of Nanotechnology Online
URL: [Details.asp]
Country: Other
Organization: AzNano
Summary: In recent times, nanotechnology has been included in a number of the debates considering emerging technology anddeveloping countries. However, the literature considering nanotechnology’s application to the developing world has often varied in its interpretation ofwhat nanotechnology really is. Furthermore, despite a wide range ofperspectives as to the relevance, appropriateness and potential impact ofnanotechnology for developing countries, the key debates have often remaineddisengaged. This paper attempts to clarify understandings of nanotechnology andsynthesize discussions on issues of relevance, appropriateness and distributionwith respect to developing countries. In support, recent developments innanotechnology and healthcare are provided.
Archived Copy: Nanotechnology and Developing Countries - Part 1_ What Possibilities_237_7747.pdf



Report Title: Nanotechnology in Agriculture and Food
Report ID: 234
Date: 4/1/2006
Author: Tiju Joseph and Mark Morrison
Report Type: General Report
Publication: nanoforum.org
URL: [nanotechnology_in_agriculture_and_food.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: nanoforum.org
Summary: The potential of nanotechnology to revolutionize the health care, textile, materials, information and communication technology, and energy sectors has been well-publicized. However, the application of nanotechnology to the agricultural and food industries has only been addressed by a United States Department of Agriculture in a roadmap published in September 2003. The prediction is that nanotechnology will transform the entire food industry, changing the way food is produced, processed, packaged, transported, and consumed. This short report will review the key aspects of these transformations, highlighting current research in the agrifood industry and what future impacts these may have.
Archived Copy: nanotechnology_in_agriculture_and_food_234_2644.pdf



Report Title: The Future of Nanotechnology: We Need to Talk
Report ID: 230
Date: 10/1/2006
Author: Volker Türk, Hugh Knowles, Prof Dr Holger Wallbaum, Dr Hans Kastenholz
Report Type: pamphlet
URL: [nanologue_scenarios_en.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Nanologue
Summary: This pamphlet is a result of the Nanologue project, an 18-month European Commission-funded project designed to support dialogue on the social, ethical and legal implications of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. The aims of this pamphlet are four-fold: to disseminate a brief summary of the findings from the Nanologue project, to provide a very short introduction to some of the risks and opportunities presented by nanotechnology, to explore three possible futures in the development of nanotechnology, and to discuss how dialogue can be used as part of a process to ensure that society maximizes the benefits from nanotechnologies and minimizes the risks.

Archived Copy: nanologue_scenarios_en_230_8727.pdf



Report Title: ELSA Studies of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Report ID: 226
Date: 11/16/2001
Author: Roger Strand
Report Type: Memo
URL: [nanostag-elsa.pdf]
Country: Other
Summary: In this memo, Strand reviews the reasons why it is important to study the ethical and societal aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology. First, public acceptance is an important prerequisite for the successful implementation of technology. Secondly, the interplay between technological development and that of society is
important because such development involves large uncertainties and essential unpredictability, which means that conventional risk assessments, cost-benefit-analyses, and conventional ethical analyses often miss the vitally important questions. Thus, he recommends the use of alternative analytical methods such as that of “post-normal science” and critical strands of the philosophy and sociology of science and technology.
Archived Copy: nanostag-elsa_226_5172.pdf



Report Title: Nanotechnology: An Overview Based on Indicators and Statistics
Report ID: 207
Date: 6/25/2009
Author: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Report Type: Working Document
URL: [JT03267289.PDF]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: This working paper attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of nanotechnology development by examining indicators and statistics. Development is often poorly monitored and growth predictions suffer from incomplete data regarding the value-added contributions of nanotechnology. At present, development can be traced across time only through the use of publications and patent data. This document categorizes and analyzes patent data by country, sector, and other classification schemes. It also presents and analyzes nanotechnology publication data, market forecasts, and numerous other statistics. The Revealed Technological Advantage (RTA) metric is presented for nanotechnology development sub-areas (chemicals, biotechnologies, etc.) for assessing specialization profiles across countries. Despite the data presented in this document, it calls for the creation of better metrics and qualitative case studies for future monitoring of nanotechnology development.
Archived Copy: 43179651_207_7178.pdf



Report Title: Comparison of Guidance on Selection of Skin Protective Equipment and Respirators for Use in the Workplace: Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 204
Date: 6/19/2009
Author: Environment Directorate Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology
Report Type: Research Report
URL: [43289781.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The OECD Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology (the Joint Meeting) held a Special Session on the Potential Implications of Manufactured Nanomaterials for Human Health and Environmental Safety (June 2005). This was the first opportunity for OECD member countries, together with observers and experts, to begin to identify human health and environmental safety related aspects of manufactured nanomaterials.

As a follow-up, the Joint Meeting decided to hold a Workshop on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials in December 2005. The main objective was to determine the "state of the art" for the safety assessment of manufactured nanomaterials with a particular focus on identifying future needs for risk assessment within a regulatory context. Based on the conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop [ENV/JM/MONO(2006)19] it was recognized as essential to ensure the efficient assessment of manufactured nanomaterials so as to avoid adverse effects from the use of these materials. With this in mind, the OECD Council established the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) as a subsidiary body of the OECD Chemicals Committee. This program concentrates on human health and environmental safety implications of manufactured nanomaterials (limited mainly to the chemicals sector), and aims to ensure that the approach to hazard, exposure and risk assessment is of a high, science-based, and internationally harmonized standard.

This document is intended to provide information on activities of the WPMN related to the safety of manufactured nanomaterials. The Working Party endorsed this report at its 5th Meeting on March 2009. This document is published on the responsibility of the Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology of the OECD.
Archived Copy: 43289781_204_5604.pdf



Report Title: Report of an OECD Workshop on Exposure Assessment and Exposure Mitigation: Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 203
Date: 7/7/2009
Author: Environment Directorate; Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology
Report Type: Research Report
URL: [43290538.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The OECD Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology held a special session on June 2005 on the potential implications of manufactured nanomaterials for human health and environmental safety. This was the first opportunity for OECD member countries, together with observers and invited experts, to begin to identify human health and environmental safety related aspects of manufactured nanomaterials. As a follow-up, these groups held a workshop on the safety of manufactured nanomaterials the following December. The main objective was to determine the "state of the art" for the safety assessment of manufactured nanomaterials with a particular focus on identifying future needs for risk assessment within a regulatory context.

Based on the conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop [ENV/JM/MONO(2006)19] it was recognized as essential to ensure the efficient assessment of manufactured nanomaterials so as to avoid adverse effects from the use of these materials. With this in mind, the OECD Council established the OECD Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN) as a subsidiary body of the OECD Chemicals Committee. This program concentrates on human health and environmental safety implications of manufactured nanomaterials, and aims to ensure that the approach to hazard, exposure and risk assessment is of a high, science-based, and internationally harmonized standard.

This document is the report of the Workshop on Exposure Assessment and Exposure Mitigation, which was held in October 2008. It intends to provide information on the outcomes and discussions of the WPMN related to the safety of manufactured nanomaterials. The opinions expressed in this document are those of the participants to the workshop and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organization or of the governments of its member countries.
Archived Copy: 43290538_203_8893.pdf



Report Title: Report of the OECDWorkshop on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials: Building Co-operation, Co-ordination and Communication
Report ID: 184
Date: 4/28/2006
Author: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Report Type: Workshop Report
URL: [JT03208175.PDF]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: Following a Special Session on the Potential Implications of Manufactured Nanomaterials for Human Health and Environmental Safety on June 7, 2005, the OECD recognized the additional need to identify potential nanotechnology safety issues in detail and to relate those issues to short, medium, and long term actions which could be addressed within the scope of the OECDs Chemicals Programme. The OECD Workshop on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials was held on December 7-9, 2005. Participants shared details of national safety-related activities and recommended the establishment of a permanent working group, the Working Group on the Risk Assessment and Management of Nanomaterials. This Workshop also supported databases, including the existing Woodrow Wilson database (storing investigations and peer-reviewed papers related to nanomaterial safety), for sharing existing knowledge of nanomaterial safety among all stakeholders. These database proposals were to be considered at the Business and Industry Advisory Committee to the OECD (BIAC)s next meeting in February 2006. The Workshop also encouraged closer cooperation with the ISO for standardization of definitions, characterization, and nomenclature of nanomaterials, by suggesting to the ISO particular focus areas where standardization would be most helpful.
Archived Copy: Michael Vincent OECD (2006), Joint Meeting of Chemicals Committee_184_2985.pdf



Report Title: Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, Number 6, List of Manufactured Nanomaterials and List of Endpoints for Phase One of the OECD Testing Programme
Report ID: 115
Date: 6/2/2008
Author: OECD
Report Type: Project Report
URL: [env-jm-mono(2008)13-rev]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) is composed of representatives of 30 industralized countries who meet to address international policies and problems of economic development. The OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials aims to identify those nanomaterial properties which are relevant for safety testing. The Working Party's Safety Testing of a Representative Set of Manufactured Nanomaterials project identified a list of representative manufactured nanomaterials which are or will shortly be on the market. This document lists those nanomaterials, which include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, silicon dioxide, etc. It also lists properties which the Project has determined are relevant to human safety testing. Such properties include, among others, surface chemistry, catalytic activity, particle size distribution, water solubility, porosity, and bioaccumulation potential. These lists will be utilized by the Working Party at a later date when developing methods for safety testing.



Report Title: OECD Work on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 112
Date: 8/1/2007
Author: OECD
Report Type: PowerPoint Presentation
URL: [37852382.ppt]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: This PowerPoint presentation highlights the various projects of the OECD in the area of nanotechnology safety. These are: The OECD Database on Safety Research, Research Strategies on Manufactured Nanomaterials, Safety Testing of a Representative Set of Manufactured Nanomaterials, Manufactured Nanomaterials and Test Guidelines, Co-operation on Voluntary Schemes and Regulatory Programmes, Co-operation on Risk Assessment, Alternative Methods in Nano Toxicology, and Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation. For each project, this presentation contains a slide briefly describing the project, which country is chairing it, and the current status.



Report Title: International Center for Technology Assessment: Petition for Rulemaking Requesting EPA Regulation Nano-Silver Products as Pesticides
Report ID: 111
Date: 5/1/2008
Report Type: Petition
URL: [CTA_nano-silver%20petition__final_5_1_08.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: International Center for Technology Assessment
Summary: The petition put forth by the International Center for Technology Assessment and other allied groups requests that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classify nanoscale silver as a pesticide, require formal pesticide registration of all products containing nanoscale silver and investigate the effects on human health and environmental risks of nanoscale silver. Most of these requested actions do not require a rulemaking by EPA; instead, petitioners desire for clearer notice and guidance from the agency, especially in light of the regulatory actions involving silver ion washing machines and nano-silver electronics. However, these efforts should also include regulatory actions under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act against existing products that contain nanoscale silver in addition to other regulatory efforts through statutes including the Food Quality Protection Act, Endangered Species Act, and National Environmental Policy Act.



Report Title: Opinion on the Scientific Aspects of the Existing and Proposed Definitions to Relation to Products on Nanonscience and Nanotechnologies
Report ID: 110
Date: 11/1/2007
Report Type: Opinion for Definitions
URL: [risk_en.htm]
Country: Other
Organization: Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENHIR)
Summary: This document establishes a framework for relevant definitions concerned with nanoscience, nanotechnologies, and the products of nanotechnology. The opinion also considered various definitions previously published or currently in use when forming the definitions. Also, the opinion stated that the purpose for creating these definitions was to generate consistency through standardization, and to create standard definitions with risk assessment strategies in mind. Furthermore, the opinion noted that these definitions are based primarily on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Although many of the nanosubstances are created naturally, the opinion discussed how the significant increase in manufactured and engineered products requires the need for new words and definitions to establish accurate safety measures. In addition, the opinion said that the criteria for terms selected for definitions included scientific validity, clarity and their ability to stand alone. Finally, the opinion reported that the definitions required for risk assessment purposes must include those that refer to qualitative and quantitative description of the size and shape of products of nanotechnologies and to relevant features of their behavior.



Report Title: ISO, IEC, NIST and OECD International workshop on documentary standards for measurement and characterization for nanotechnologies
Report ID: 103
Date: 6/1/2008
Report Type: Meeting Notes
URL: [final_report.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: NIST
Summary: Risk assessment of nanomaterials suffers from a lack of standardized testing protocols and material characterization guidelines. The International Workshop on Documentary Standards for Measurement and Characterization for Nanotechnologies was held on February 27-28, 2008 and addressed these issues. Its objective was to exchange data on nanomaterial standards and to formulate methodologies for developing future standards. Participants agreed to establish a database of nanotechnology standardization projects. This document summarizes the Workshop's schedule, recommendations, and conclusions.



Report Title: Current Developments/Activities on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, Tour de Table at the 4th Meeting of the Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 102
Date: 6/13/2008
Author: OECD
Report Type: Meeting Minutes
URL: [env-jm-mono(2008)29]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) is composed of representatives of 30 industralized countries who meet to address international policies and problems of economic development. This document contains the information shared by member countries at the 4th meeting of the OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. The Working Party, a subsidiary of the OECD's Chemicals Committee, meets periodically to share information regarding current developments in nanomaterial safety. Each delegation announced its current and planned national safety initiatives as well as present and future intergovernmental cooperation. Their announcements are sorted by country and summarized in this document.



Report Title: Current Developments/Activities on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials, Tour de Table at the 2nd Meeting of the Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials
Report ID: 101
Date: 4/27/2007
Author: OECD
Report Type: Meeting Minutes
URL: [env-jm-mono(2007)16]
Country: Other
Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)
Summary: The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) is composed of representatives of 30 industralized countries who meet to address international policies and problems of economic development. This document contains the information shared by member countries at the 2nd meeting of the OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials. The Working Party, a subsidiary of the OECD's Chemicals Committee, met to share information regarding current developments in nanomaterial safety. Each delegation announced its current and planned national safety initiatives as well as present and future intergovernmental cooperation. Their announcements are sorted by country and summarized in this document.



Report Title: CELL PEN: A study to identify the physico-chemical factors controlling the capacity of nanoparticles to penetrate cells
Report ID: 94
Date: 8/12/2008
Author: SM Hankin, CL Tran, B Ross, K Donaldson, V Stone, Q Chaudhry
Report Type: Guidance Document
URL: [CellPenCB0407.pdf]
Country: Other
Summary: A major concern about the possible toxic effects of nanoparticles is their capacity to penetrate the cells and potentially translocate to other cells, tissues, and organs far from their portal of entry into the body. To clarify these concerns, researchers of the Cell Pen project conducted a comprehensive review of available literature relating to nanoparticle translocation. The resulting report analyzes the susceptibility of several types of organic tissue, including pulmonary interstitium, blood, and placenta/fetus, to this process. However, the absence of information on nanoparticle translocation to these sites renders several of these findings inconclusive. The researchers then detail a prospective research agenda for elucidating translocation in nanoparticle toxicology, with emphasis placed on the potential target sites for particle translocation from their site of deposition on the lung surface. Included in this agenda is a need to examine the role of surface reactivity and composition on toxicokinetic processes and the ability of particles to cross the placenta and blood-brain barrier, develop cell-based assays, and the necessity of labeling nanoparticles to identify small amounts of translocation.



Report Title: Initial Thematic Report
Report ID: 78
Date: 5/1/2006
Report Type: General Report
URL: [Oth-Initial%20Thematic%20Report.pdf]
Country: Other
Organization: EuroIndiaNet
Summary: The EuroIndiaNet project seeks to increase collaboration between European Union and Indian scientists and government in the field of nanotechnology. The project's report summarizes the EU and Indian policies which further such collaboration, such as the EU's bilateral Science and Technology agreements. These policies are supplemented by bilateral funding, particularly for joint research and development. This document lists and describes the funding, research centers, human resources, nanotechnology industry alliances, and training programs which further collaboration between the two governments.



Report Title: Preliminary Opinion on Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products
Report ID: 77
Date: 6/19/2007
Report Type: General Report
URL: [risk_en.htm]
Country: Other
Organization: Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP)
Summary: This opinion is a response by the SCCP to questions regarding the safety of nanomatierals in cosmetic products, the implications on animal testing, and whether previous opinions about nanomaterials currently used in sunscreen products would need to be revised. The opinion indicated that conventional risk assessment methodologies may be adequate for labile nanoparticles. However, it mentioned that primary health concerns involve insoluble particles but are inconclusive due to insufficient information at this time. Furthermore, the opinion stresses the need for new methodologies to assess percutaneous penetration pathways because evidence indicates that mechanical and/or chemical action on the skin may have an effect on nanoparticles penetration. This opinion also stated that large data gaps exist in the risk assessment of nanoparticles used in cosmetic products that are inhaled and ingested. In regards to animal testing, the opinion stated that only validated “in vitro” methods may be tested on animals, but currently there are no validated “in vitro” methods for nanomaterials. Finally, the opinion found that due to the considerable increase in available scientific data on nanosized particles it is necessary to review safety of nanomaterials currently used in sunscreen products.



Report Title: Nanotechnology in Argentina: Report of a Fact Finding Mission to San Carlos de Bariloche and Buenos Aires, 19-23 November 2007
Report ID: 75
Date: 1/7/2008
Author: Ineke Malsch
Report Type: Fact Finding Report
URL: [nanotechnology_argentina.pdf]
Country: Other
Summary: The emerging nanotechnology industry in Argentina has significant future research potential. Argentine researchers are interested in international research cooperation, particularly with the European Union, but often are unable to fully collaborate due to EU funding regulations and rules involving “third country” research participants. Argentina also suffers from its reputation as a politically unstable country and it is not well-known for its technological abilities. This report highlights recent Argentine nanotechnology policies and groups, including the formation of the Argentinean Nanotechnology Foundation. It presents a snapshot of the organization of the various groups and companies already conducting nanotechnology-related research within the country, their current research and products, and their future plans in the area of nanotechnology.



Report Title: Regulatory Aspects of Nanomaterials
Report ID: 68
Date: 1/1/2008
Report Type: Working Document
Country: Other
Organization: Commission of the European Communities
Summary: This report summarizes European legislation in relation to health, safety and environment aspects of nanomaterials, regulatory research needs and related measures. In 2008, the Commission of the European Communities summarized the parts of European legislation most relevant to nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. This summary served as the foundation for conclusions reported in the Commission Communication on Regulatory Aspects of Nanotechnology. It reported that REACH, a chemical regulation agency, will broaden and compliment current regulations by placing the responsibility for safe use of substances on manufactures, importers, and users of substances instead of a single regulatory system. Furthermore, it identified the Framework Directive 89/391/EEC as the most important legislation in health and safety because it requires employers to identify and eliminate risks at the workplace that deal with nanomaterials. In addition, this document reported that legislation will determine the conditions in which products can be placed on the market and established ways to guarantee that regulatory requirements are followed. The legislative regulations range from biocides and cosmetics to food preparation and additives, but it does not cover all consumer products. The document also discusses the regulations in place to ensure that industrial activities are environmental friendly. Finally, the document explains the steps in place to promote cooperation in human health and environment safety in relation to nanomaterial manufacturing. These include standardization in classifications and measurement, as well as the establishment of ethics regulations. In this report, the SCCP is requested to review and, if appropriate, to amend its notes of guidance for the testing and their safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients containing nanomaterials. Particular attention should be paid to the skin absorption and resorption of these substances, especially with differing skin conditions and different sizes of particles. The question of whether mass unit is the appropriate basis for regulating the exposure to nanomaterials may need to be addressed as well. In the light of theses findings, the SCCP may need to review existing opinions on nanosized materials as cosmetic ingredients and may need to identify which additional elements are required for the submission of a safety-file. The Committee is asked to give its opinion as a matter of priority that should be answered by the end of 2005. The unique contribution of this report is its clear focus on assessing the state of scientific knowledge concerning engineered nanomaterials from the perspective of risk assessment and regulation. In doing so, it clarifies the nature of the regulatory approach that would most effectively address the issues presented by nanomaterials and products that make use of them. The panel hopes that its findings and recommendations will provide a science-based assessment that will assist the sponsors in meeting the international challenge of effectively regulating engineered nanomaterials that enter trade and commerce.



 
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